Ten Tips for Safeguarding Your Shop’s Metal Lathes

Operators of lathes are one of the largest machine worker populations in the United States, estimated to account for over 140,000 machinists. Of this population, approximately 3,000 suffer lost-time injuries annually in the United States. Some of these are fatal. These accidents occur in large industrial settings and factories, as well as in much smaller machine shops. No lathe operator is immune from an accident.

Operating a manual metal lathe, in particular, presents a number of hazards. For one, the lathe’s rotating parts easily can catch hair, jewelry and clothing, entangling the operator and resulting in severe and life altering injuries. Entanglement is also a risk whenever lathe operators use emery paper to sand or polish a rotating shaft. Without warning, the paper may wrap itself around the shaft, entangling the operator’s gloved hand, hair or loose clothing at over 300 RPM. Second, flying hot metal chips and coolant present serious risks if the machine’s guards or the operator’s PPE does not protect them effectively. Other risks include a work piece kicking back at the operator, slip-and-fall accidents due to coolant spilled on the floor, and parts or materials, such as chuck keys or unsecured work pieces, being projected at high speed and striking the operator and nearby employees. There have been lathe accidents recorded due to something as minor as the flashing effect of fluorescent light that can make a spinning lathe appear to have stopped.

Research shows there are numerous factors that can lead to a lathe accident. At the top of the list are malfunctions due to defective machinery, the failure to install proper safeguarding, mistakes due to the lack of employee training, poor lighting, and not providing proper PPE.

What does a metal lathe do?
A manual metal lathe is a precision turning machine that rotates a metal rod or irregular-shaped material while a tool cuts into the material at a preset position. Similar to a wood lathe, the metal lathe normally consists of a headstock and base that houses one or more spindles on which a work holding device or “chuck” can drive the stock while cutting tools remove metal, producing mainly cylindrical and conical shapes.

Operator Training & PPE
First and foremost, lathe operators must be trained and held accountable for following safe work practices. This is essential in avoiding injury. Examples of lathe machine safety precautions include not wearing loose clothing, rings and other jewelry, keeping long hair pulled back while operating a lathe and keeping hands and fingers away from rotating parts. As mentioned earlier, these practices are important because rotating parts will catch loose or dangling items and pull the operator into the machine, causing serious injuries or death.

OSHA makes it the responsibility of the employer to provide training that addresses safe start-up and shutdown as well as proper machine operation, speed adjustments and work piece placement, control and support. Employers must also equip lathe operators with proper PPE that includes safety glasses or other suitable eye protection, earplugs, protective footwear, and close-fitting clothing.

Safeguarding Standards for Lathes
There are no OSHA regulations specifically for lathes. Instead, OSHA considers lathes to be a 1910.212 machine, saying to the employer, “One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips, and sparks” … but 1910.212 requirements are vague because they cover such a wide variety of machinery. Therefore, a reference to something more detailed, like the “appropriate standard” ANSI B11.6-2001, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Lathes, is required for specific safeguarding alternatives. Section 5 of this standard contains the safeguarding requirements on metalworking lathes.

An important standard that ANSI B11 standards reference is ANSI/NFPA 79, Electrical Requirements for Industrial Machinery. It provides detailed information for the application of electrical/electronic equipment, apparatuses, or systems supplied as part of industrial machinery, including lathes. This standard addresses such issues as requirements for operator controls, emergency-stop devices, disconnect switches, motor starters, and protective interlocks.

Of course, even properly installed safeguarding equipment can’t protect a machinist who “works around” the safeguarding, lifting a guard, for example, to accomplish a task. Thankfully, most shields can be interlocked with the machine’s electrical system to prevent operation when they are not in place. Swinging a shield from its protective position will break its electrical connection and cut the power, forcing a quick coast down.

A lathe has several points of operation that present hazards. Each requires specialized safeguarding equipment. Below we address each of these hazards and what can be done to avoid accidents.

1. Safeguarding the Chuck
The chuck area is by far the most dangerous area on a lathe. From a practical standpoint, a rotating chuck cannot be fully enclosed — unlike gears, sprockets, or chains that usually are completely covered, often by the OEM. However, that same lathe manufacturer may not provide safeguarding at or near the point of operation although, according to 6.21 of ANSI B11.6, manual lathes must be safeguarded with a chuck guard and chip and coolant splash shields as required. In this case the employer is responsible.

Hinged chuck-shields are one of the most common methods to protect lathe operators from the rotating work-holder. Their purpose is to prevent an operator from inadvertently coming in contact with the chuck, which often results in entanglement, serious bodily injury or even death. Chuck shields are commercially available from numerous providers. They may be constructed of metal, polycarbonate, or some combination of materials. When not in use, they need to be swung up out of the way, so most are hinged. Same for during set-up.

Although U.S. Safety Standards and Regulations do not require chuck-shields to be interlocked, some European and Canadian manufacturers offer that feature. With electrically interlocked shields, when the lathe chuck shield is lifted up, the positive contacts on the microswitch open, sending a stop signal to the machine control. The machine will not start up again until the emergency stop button has been reset.

A common complaint against chuck shields is that they limit visibility due to light reflecting off the shield, or that obstruct their view to the work piece. To overcome these problems a clip-on lamp is sometime installed yet these can easily overheat. A far better solution is newer shields featuring built-in bright LED lighting that yield better visibility without shadows or heat build-up.

2. Sanding Belt Holder
Hand sanding and polishing metal shafts on the lathe with an emery cloth has resulted in numerous injuries. Emery cloth and gloves can easily be caught on the shaft, pulling the operator’s hand and arm on the shaft. An automatic sanding belt holder enables lathe operators to sand, polish and debur hands-free, keeping them a safe operating distance away from the spinning shaft and preventing entanglement. It typically fixes to existing tool-case turrets.

3. E-Stops
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards state that an emergency-stop or “e-stop” is required on any machine that will tolerate a quick stop. Some lathes have a true e-stop built in to halt operation in less than a second, but most require several seconds to cease functions. An electronic motor brake can improve coast-down time, in some cases from 15 seconds to 3 seconds, which can make a significant difference in an emergency.

Per NFPA 79, the e-stop must be a red with a yellow background, and have a mushroom-shaped button with a manual latch that keeps it down once it is pushed to prevent machine operation by the regular controls. Once the e-stop is engaged, the latch keeps it down until a manual quarter-turn releases the latch and allows the machine’s controls to again command the machine’s actions. Kick plates or grab-wires that go across a machine can facilitate an emergency shutdown if there is potential for an operator’s hands to be caught.

E-stops need to be readily accessible. An e-stop button should be within easy reach at each location on the machine that requires operator interaction. When more than one individual is involved, each person should have his or her own e-stop.

4. Chip/Coolant Shields
The long stringy chips produced when turning steel can wreak havoc on an operation and production. Edges of the chips are scorching hot and extremely sharp putting the operator at risk for injury, as well. Chips can strike the operator in the upper body or accumulate on the floor creating a slip-trip hazard.

As protection against chips, coolants, lubricant and sparks, lathes should be equipped with a chip and coolant splash guard, also known as a carriage safety guard. This type of guard can be electrically interlocked like a chuck shield, and gives added protection to the operator from direct contact with rotating components. Coolants are often overlooked as a hazard yet workers often are exposed through inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or absorption through the skin, leading to burns and irritations. Without a chip/coolant shield, operators can also be at risk of inhalation of airborne substances such as oil mist, metal fumes, solvents, and dust.

It is rare for an OEM to include this type of shield on a new lathe. Again, it is the responsibility of the employer to install it before the lathe is put into commission.

5. Chuck Wrench
According to feedback from OSHA Compliance Officers and Insurance Loss Control Inspectors, one of the most common lathe accidents results from the misuse of standard chuck wrenches furnished by lathe manufacturers. When the lathe is not being used, a typical – and very unsafe storage place for the chuck-wrench is in the chuck. At some point in time, the operator turns the lathe on without checking to see where the chuck wrench is located, which projects it across the shop floor. Spring-loaded, self-ejecting chuck wrenches are a solution to this problem because they won’t stay in the chuck by themselves, helping to prevent a potential ejection hazard at machine start-up.

7. Magnetic Motor Starters and Disconnects
When updating an older lathe it is required practice to bring it up to code with current electrical standards like NFPA 79. This will require the installation of a motor starter and disconnect those only locks in the OFF position. When adding a motor starter, ensure it is magnetic to provide drop-out or “anti-restart” protection.

8. Telescopic stainless-steel sleeves
Although slow moving, horizontal rotating components in a lathe can entangle an operator and crush body parts with their tremendous torque. Installing telescopic stainless-steel sleeves will seal off their pinch-points plus protect the components from metal chips and other destructive contaminants. Unfortunately, operators complain that these devices are time consuming to install, need to be removed and cleaned regularly, and cause a loss in carriage travel. However, when compared to preventing a life-changing injury, these complaints are trivial in comparison.

9. Other Precautions
As with any machine, provision for Lockout/Tagout is always important with lathes. Danger and warning signs, depicting specific hazards on lathes, are also strongly recommended.

10. Conduct Machine Safeguarding Assessments
Machine Safeguarding Assessments are a critical step in any machine safeguarding process as outlined by ANSI B11, especially for companies deploying older or refurbished lathes. It is not unusual for lathes built in the 1940s to still be in active service, having been resold several times over the decades.

Odds that an older lathe is up to today’s safety standards are highly unlikely. Employers are often lulled into a false sense of security because a serious accident hasn’t occurred, or they may simply assume that the lathe they purchased, whether new or used, came equipment with all necessary safeguarding. The only way to take the guesswork out of compliance issues in your shop is a machine safeguarding assessment conducted by a qualified third-party, to help keep operators safe, machines productive and processes online. They will assign each machine a Risk Rating of 1 to 27, with 27 being the worst, based on three considerations: Severity of Injury, Exposure Frequency, and Avoidance Likelihood. When conducted by professionals, your machine safeguarding assessment will be delivered with a compliance report and a safeguarding project proposal that will detail the timing, costs and specific equipment required to bring machinery up to current standards.

OSHA, Happy Golden Anniversary!

History

The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act signed into law by President Richard M. Nixon on December 29, 1970 – that measure that created OSHA – gave the federal government the authority to set and enforce safety and health standards for most of the country’s workers. The agency’s responsibilities include private sector employers and their employees in the 50 states and certain territories and jurisdictions under federal authority, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Wake Island, Johnston Island, and the Outer Continental Shelf Lands.

The demand for a system of overseeing workplace safety on a federal level had begun more than a century before that signing, when workers in factories that sprang up during and after the Civil War were killed or sickened by hazardous materials and dangerous machines. Some states, urged on by social reformers and the budding labor movement, passed their own factory safety and health laws and hired inspectors to enforce them.

Workplace disasters helped shape public opinion

High profile tragedies like the 1907 mine disaster in Monongah, West Virginia that killed 362 coal miners, and the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire in New York City that claimed the lives of 146 garment workers, helped turn public opinion toward the need for government intervention in hazardous workplaces.

In 1913, Congress created the Department of Labor. Under newly appointed Secretary of Labor, William B. Wilson, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (formerly the U.S. Bureau of Labor) started compiling regular accident statistics in the iron and steel industry and gradually included other industries.

Frances Perkins, appointed Secretary of Labor by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, brought with her experience working in occupational safety and health in the State of New York. Perkins created a Bureau of Labor Standards in 1934 to promote safety and health for the entire work force. The Bureau helped State governments improve their administration of job safety and health laws and raise the level of their protective legislation.

Fast forward to 1970, when Nixon signed the OSH Act in a ceremony at the Labor Department in the presence of labor leaders, business representatives and members of Congress. Although the action ended “on a note of harmony and bipartisanship” – according to MacLaury – it came after a bitter, three-year-long legislative struggle.

U.S. Secretary of Labor Eugene Scalia describes the OSH Act as “a cornerstone of worker protection in our country.” Following its enactment, workplace fatalities decreased by approximately 65 percent.

Today

Are America’s workplaces safer fifty years later? Absolutely. Workplace fatalities have decreased about 60%, while injuries and illnesses have fallen significantly. From the 1978 cotton dust standard that reduced worker fatalities by 90%, to the nationwide observances we lead like the Annual Trench Safety Stand-Down that reach hundreds of thousands of workers with key safety messages, to our new COVID-19 Harwood Grant program funding, OSHA has worked diligently throughout the decades to improve workplace safety.

This decade began with the coronavirus pandemic, which presented a challenge unlike any other the nation has faced – and had devastating effects on workplace safety and health. It also exposed deep inequities in our workforce. Too many workers – including many who were deemed essential – went without essential protections and far too many lost their lives as a result. They will not be forgotten.

Today OSHA’s mission is as important as ever and we have much work to do to ensure every worker comes home safe and healthy.

https://www.osha.gov/osha50

Shield Against Debris

When a machinist is cutting, drilling, shaping or milling raw materials, there are always inherent risks. Thankfully, proper and up-to-date safeguarding equipment drastically minimizes the risks that machines pose. In this article, we look at one of the most basic and most critical components in machine safeguarding: the safety shield.

Before we start, we need to clarify the terms “guard” and “shield.” These are often used interchangeably when referring to safeguarding equipment, yet the two categories are very different. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.217 defines a guard as an enclosure that prevents anyone from reaching over, under, around, or through to a hazard.

Guards are used when a machine risk assessment shows a high level of exposure to recognized hazards. Shields, on the other hand, are designed for lower levels of exposures to hazards, while providing visibility into the point of operation. Shields typically have a transparent plastic panel with rugged framing, while a guard is solid metal, although it should be noted that not (not all shields have a framework, and that many industrial guards use aluminum for framework.).

Flying debris protection
The purpose of safety shields is to protect the machinist and bystanders from moving parts, flying debris, coolant, sparks, and other potential safety hazards by enclosing the danger (shields don’t enclose a hazard, they providing a barrier between plant personnel and the hazard) behind a rugged, impact-resistant panel. Shields attach to machinery, either temporally or permanently, fitting over blades, drills, lathe chucks, grinding wheels and other dangerous components (blades, cutting tools, chucks, grinding stones and other hazardous rotating components.).

Perhaps the greatest danger shields protect against is flying debris, an all-too-common occurrence in machine shops with the potential to bring about serious injury to an operator’s eyes, face, or body. The costs of a flying debris injury can add up quickly. Costs may include workers’ compensation claims, medical expenses, lost production time, and the possibility of permanent scarring and blindness.

For instance, consider an abrasive wheel grinder. Grinders are one of the most common pieces of machinery in maintenance shops, wheel grinders are powerful and designed to operate at high speeds. Depending on the equipment, the wheels can revolve at an incredible 10,000 surface feet per minute, and can loosen sharp chips or particles that can fly into an operator’s eyes or face. If a grinding wheel shatters while in use, the fragments can travel at more than 300 miles per hour directly at the operator, more than fast enough to penetrate the skull and cause traumatic brain injury. In situations like this a safety shield is the last line of defense against tragedy. (Our shields do NOT provide protection from catastrophic machine failure, which I would consider an exploding grinding stone) Even if the operator is wearing proper personal protective equipment, flying chips can cause life-threatening injuries without a shield installed. A shield can make the difference between a day that ends successfully and a day one that ends in the hospital.

Safety standards
Given their critical importance to operator safety, it is not surprising that ANSI, OSHA and other standards governing machine safeguarding heavily rely upon shields. Specific requirements largely depend on the type of machinery being safeguarded. Before installing a new shield on any machine the safety manager must ensure that the shield conforms to the appropriate, up-to-date standard for that machine.

Besides grinders, shields are typically installed on drilling machines, lathes, milling machines, band saws (saws), belt sanders, and disc sanders (sanding machines), and boring machines.. TheseThe seven (eight) machines represent over 95 percent of all shielding applications. Different standards outline the type of shield design and size that is allowed on each. In some cases, more than one type of shield per machine may be necessary to provide protection.

Types of shields
Shields come in dozens of designs, sizes and shapes. In their most basic form they can be broken out into fixed, portable, adjustable and interlocked categories, or a mixture of these features.

Fixed/portable
The most obvious characteristic of a fixed shield is that it is a permanent part of the machine. Tools are needed for its removal making it difficult to bypass. It is also not dependent upon other moving parts to perform its intended function, further increasing the protection. In contrast, a portable shield can be removed from the machine when not in use. Often, smaller shields will feature a pull magnetic base that attaches to a flat surface on the machine being safeguarded. Being removable, portable shields can be set aside for maintenance or moved to a similar machine. There are also large freestanding portable shields used to protect the area between machines, along aisles, or the backside of a machine.

Adjustable
An adjustable shield can be positioned for maximum protection during operation and swung out of the way for easy access to the workpiece and tooling. Types of adjustable shields are those mounted on brackets that allow for slide adjustments to fit workpieces; on steel ball-and-socket arms for simple movements and adjustments; or on flexible spring-steel arms offering virtually unlimited adjustment possibilities and long-term holding power.

Interlocked
Although not required, (I don’t like saying “not required” fiIt is best practices that sshields featuring movable parts that can be opened without using tools should be interlocked with the machine control system. The interlock prevents machines from starting until the shield is positioned safely in front of the hazardous area. Additionally, if the shield is moved away from the hazardous area while the machine is running, the interlock will send a stop signal to turn the machine off.

This way the hazards covered by the shields will be effectively controlled if the shield is opened and the hazard is exposed. (Explain differently, this is confusing. Hazardous machine movement is prevented when the shield is opened) When an interlocked shield is opened or closed, a tripping mechanism automatically shuts off the power to disengage operations. The machine cannot cycle or be started until the shield is back in place. (Maybe wrap all three previous sentences into one statement. Sounds odd and non-technical)

Modern machines rely on electrical interlocks since they are already fitted with an electrical control system. The interlock is connected to the safety circuit of the machine and will prevent machine start-ups when the shield is swung open, even if the power switch is “ON”. It is only after the shield is closed that the machine can be restarted and normal operation resumed. Switches and sensors connected to these systems can be something as simple as a micro-switch or a reed switch, or as complex as a non-contact sensor with an electromagnetic locking device. Non-contact interlocking devices available today use coded RF signals or RF ID technologies to ensure that the interlock cannot be defeated by simple measures, like taping a magnet to a rA safety relay will monitor the interlock switch for failure, providing a notification if the interlock has been removed or is not functioning correctly.

Impact resistance
It goes without saying that Aa transparent shield needs to be highly impact resistant, along with providing an unobstructed and undistorted view. Impact resistance of a material can be measured in different ways, and the test method varies depending on the material being evaluated. In the United States, the notched Izod impact resistance test, as outlined in ASTM D256, is a common method of measuring the toughness of a plastic material.

It is important to note that increasing the thickness of a shield beyond a certain level does not always improve or increase impact resistance. A shield made of tougher material can be down-gauged to be thinner — and, therefore, more cost-effective — than one made from a more brittle material while still offering the same or superior level of protection for operators. Not sure the impact resistance data belongs in this article.

Innovations
Having lain dormant for decades, innovation has finally come to the safety shield business. Companies are bringing new materials and features to the product category that are enhancing operator safety yet making it less expensive for machine shops to be fully compliant with regulations.

An example of this new problem-solving advancement is the incorporation of bright LED lighting into the shield frame to yield higher visibility of the work area. Operators have often complained that shields limit visibility because of reflectivity or obstruction. Unlike an incandescent, LED lighting is not-reflective, cool and renders true colors. Besides the white lighting illuminating the work area while in operational mode, different LED colors can be programmed to act as visual indicators.

For example, when the shield is moved out of the safe work position, the white LED can switch off automatically and red LED can switch on to warn the operator. If you plan to purchase a shield with an LED be aware that the lighting must be manufactured to exacting IEC IP65 outdoor/wet locations standards to withstand splashes of coolant and lubricant from the machine.

Another innovation is modularity. Different machines require different shields, and one size rarely fits all. Shield manufacturers have embraced the modular design concept so that shield shape, size, mount, arm, offset, lighting, interlocking and safety monitoring can be configured to engineer the best solution for even the most unique challenge.. Available today are various mounting options, including opposite-hand mounting scenarios for left-handed operators. Left handed or not, handles for drills, mills, boring machines, etc are located on the right side of most machines. Opposite side mounting locations are selected based on available machine frame surface and/or other obstructions on a machine. Shields are vertically and horizontally adjustable to clear varying work setups and table heights.

Finally, there is the issue of operators bypassing shields, either by pushing them out of the way or tampering with the equipment.

Tamper-resistant interlock enclosures (switches) and redundant safety monitoring (monitoring does nothing for preventing tampering) go a long way towards stopping bypassing. However, a quality shield that doesn’t interfere with operation of a machine is a better answer. A shield defeats its purpose if it impedes a worker from performing a job quickly and comfortably. When properly installed and designed for a specific machine, a shield will actually enhance efficiency because it will relieve apprehensions about an injury.

Learn about Rockford Systems’ line of PROTECTOR Series Shields offering the highest level of safety on the market.

Steel Curtains Help Protect Against Flying Debris Ejected from Hydraulic Presses

The potential for catastrophic injury when operating a hydraulic press is great. Its operation requires a worker to feed, position and remove stock in the area under the powerful ram or near the bending point, exposing him or herself directly to danger. Each year an estimated 250,000 industrial workers are struck by ejected debris such as metal chips, nails, broken cutters, blades, tools and dislodged grinding wheels from a variety of different machines.

Because of the tremendous force of a press, parts ejected from it have led to countless serious eye, head, and bodily injuries. Metal fragments, slivers, piece parts and blocks can be dislodged and dispersed at great speed, striking the press operator or bystanders. These types of accidents typically occur when job parts are not aligned properly during setup. As a result the job part may be squeezed out or ejected when under tremendous load. Stock may also fracture, sending shrapnel into the work area, piercing skin and underlying tissues. Each year an estimated 250,000 industrial workers are struck by ejected debris such as metal chips, nails, broken cutters, blades, tools and dislodged grinding wheels from a variety of different machines.

ROLE OF EJECTION CURTAINS
Ejection Curtain

Steel mesh ejection curtains were originally intended to protect people in the vicinity of a bomb blast. Today they have become a safety solution for hydraulic presses, namely Arbor and H-Frame presses. Rather than having a work piece that fractures, slides, rolls or ejects to become a high-speed projectile, the curtain’s interlocking wire coils act as individual springs that absorb kinetic energy, expanding and stretching in a predictive and repeatable way. The holes in the material allow pressure to go through the mesh while stopping or slowing the flying debris by wrapping around it and dropping it to the floor without ricocheting back towards the press, thereby reducing the potential for striking the operator.

Ejection curtains have gained popularity since they offer access during normal operations, as well as for press maintenance. Being mesh, the curtains are flexible and simple to push out of the way during loading, positioning or removing work pieces, unlike with traditional fencing or solid metal barriers. Additionally, the mesh curtain allows visibility while the press is in operation. Curtains are typically secured at the top on a pipe suspension assembly and hang free at both sides and the bottom, providing easy access to the machine.

METHODS FOR RISK REDUCTION
Ejection Curtains Top

Although ejection curtains are not classified as guards, they do act as an awareness barrier for powered presses to reduce exposure to the point of operation and also act as a containment barrier to stop or slow projectiles ejected from the machine. For powered presses, this product meets the ANSI B11.2 ref 8.2.1. “flying objects” clause, pending results of the risk assessment to determine the likelihood and force potential for throwing objects (note, a “shield” does not need to be a hard guard).

Platen presses, stamping presses, transfer presses, and in some cases forging presses require barrier guards or devices, which prevent access to the point of operation Over, Under, Around, or Through the guard itself. For these applications, an ejection curtain does not meet these criteria as it is a movable barrier and does not have to be in place to operate the press.

For more information on ejection curtains, please visit our product page or call 1-800-922-7533 or customerservice@rockfordsystems.com.

How to Get Your Hands on the Right Safety Gloves

Hands are the most used tools in the workplace, making their protection from on-the-job hazards critically important to maintaining employee productivity. Hand dangers are around every corner. Depending on the workplace, employees’ hands are endangered from chemicals, abrasive surfaces, splinters, broken glass, and cuts or scrapes, among countless other hazards.

According to the US Department of Labor, injuries to hands accounted for nearly 25 percent of all lost-time industrial injuries — a total of 110,000 annually. Seventy percent of those injuries resulted when an employee was not wearing safety gloves, while the other 30 percent of hand injuries occurred while an employee was wearing the wrong kind of gloves.

Hand injuries are preventable. Safety gloves, correctly sized and engineered with the right materials, will help defend workers from virtually any type of hazard. Unfortunately, employees often have a very limited understanding of how to select a glove properly based on the dangers they confront. The number of glove choices is vast—and the standards governing personal protective equipment, including hand protection—are not always easy to decipher.

Protective gloves, like any safety product, must be selected properly for the specific application. To do so, first conduct a risk assessment by determining the scope of the work, and next, identifying any potential hazards within that scope that may injure employees’ hands. If it is possible to eliminate the identified hazard by engineering or substitution, this is always the best means to protect the employee. If not, gloves should be used only as a last resort, along with other required PPE. Protective gloves tend to be less effective than other control measures but if avoiding contact is impractical or is not enough to protect employees then gloves are needed.

Recognize that an employee may be exposed to more than one hazard. For instance, the jobsite may contain corrosive chemicals or biological exposure, as well as sharp metals, or broken glass. If you are not sure of the hazard or hazards, confer with an Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) coordinator or industrial hygienist. Once gloves are selected, inform employees how to use them properly to protect themselves. Let them know when gloves should be replaced. If the gloves are reusable ask employees to rinse them before removal and tell them how they should be stored.

CHEMICAL-PROOF GLOVES
A principle function of skin is to protect our bodies from exposure to potentially harmful components of the external environment. Skin does this remarkably well, but direct contact with chemicals poses a danger to the skin itself. Chemical reactions to skin can be a burn, dermatitis or chapping. Chemicals can also penetrate the skin and enter the bloodstream. Risk varies according to the chemical, its concentration, and time of contact among other safety factors. Refer to the product SDS for specifics. Section 8 of the SDS provides what types of PPE are necessary to protect the user. Section 11 has toxicological information such as potential local skin effects, as well as potential absorption through the skin and resultant acute and chronic effects.

Because different glove materials resist different chemicals, no one glove is suited for all chemical exposures. Dependant on the chemical, gloves can be fabricated with natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile rubber, butyl rubber, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl alcohol, Saranex™, Tychem®, Trellchem®. Key factors to review in selecting the material are breakthrough time, degradation and permeation rate. Refer to the glove manufacturer’s test data for details.

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.138 (Hand Protection General Requirements) specifically addresses the need for hand protection or chemical protective gloves. This standard makes it mandatory to assess the job for chemical exposures, and then select the appropriate, chemical protective glove based on material, thickness, length and other traits. ANSI/ISEA 105-2016 is another source of information that provides a consistent, numeric-scale method for manufacturers to rate their gloves against certain contaminants and exposures.

CUT-RESISTANT GLOVES

Tear, puncture, and cut-resistant gloves are often constructed from materials such as high-grade stainless steel Kevlar®, and may feature a mesh aesthetic. Resistant to damage from sharp or abrasive objects such as glass and knives, these gloves are often ergonomically designed for a precise fit.

There are two major global standards used to evaluate the protection levels of work gloves: ANSI/ISEA 105 (U.S. Standard) and EN 388 (EU Standard). Besides Europe, EN 388 is also commonly cited in other parts of the world such as Canada, AUS/NZ and South America. In 2015-2016, significant changes were made to both to ensure consistency between different standards and to reduce the gaps between protection levels. The new ANSI/ISEA 105 scale, characterized by an ‘A’ in front of level numbers from A1 to A9, measures a glove’s performance by the cutting force it can withstand in grams. For instance, an A1 glove can withstand from 200-499 grams of cutting force, while an A9 glove can withstand 6000+ grams of cutting force. When looking at glove specifications, the ANSI cut level will be displayed inside a badge that resembles a shield.

Cut-resistant sleeves, often worn with cut-resistant gloves, extend protection from the wrist up towards the elbow or shoulder.

THERMAL-PROOF GLOVES
Thermal proof gloves protect against extreme temperatures and are fabricated from a variety of materials, including:

Neoprene: Neoprene gloves are used for protection against frost and burn injuries, as in the case of firefighting gloves.

Aluminized Material: Aluminized material is capable of handling and withstanding extremely high temperatures (depending on the specific formula, up to and exceeding 2,000° F). Gloves made of this material are suitable for welding, furnace and foundry, and some laboratory applications.

When choosing the heat-resistant gloves for a task, you’ll need to find out the precise temperature of the object, not just the ambient temperature. For example, an industrial oven might be 1000°F but the object being handled is only 600°F. Also, high temperature gloves are available as either gloves or mitts. Gloves are for applications that require dexterity, while mitts are for applications that require additional insulation for heat protection, added comfort, and longer wear. Heat-resistant gloves should be tested to ASTM F1060-87 (also know as C.H.A.R.) that establishes the maximum temperature at which a person can hold an object for more than four seconds before feeling pain, and for more than 15 seconds before getting a second-degree burn.

On the other end of the temperature spectrum, cold-resistant gloves, commonly known as freezer gloves, protect employee hands from cuts and scrapes, while an inner insulation reduces the risk of frostbite. These gloves do not have the thickness or the high level of insulation associated with a ski type glove since that bulkiness would inhibit grip and dexterity when handling frozen foods. Polyethylene, glass fiber, polyester, and spandex are all used in the construction of cold storage thermal gloves. Water wicking on the glove’s base layer moves moisture away from the skin, helping to keep hands dryer and warmer for a longer period of time.

GLOVES AND MACHINERY
Machinists who are operating rotating machines should not wear gloves. If machinists are working with a CNC machine, a lathe, a knee mill, or a drill press, wearing gloves near a rotating spindle can spell disaster. Machinery must have guards installed or incorporated into their design that prevent hands from contacting the point of operation or other moving parts.

For more information on choosing the right PPE for machinists, please check out this blog.

GLOVE MAINTENANCE
Like any tool, gloves must be treated properly for them to perform their function. Protective gloves should be inspected before each use to ensure that they are not torn, punctured or made ineffective in any way. A visual inspection will help detect cuts or tears but a more thorough inspection by filling the gloves with water and tightly rolling the cuff towards the fingers will help reveal any pinhole leaks. Gloves that are discolored or stiff may also indicate deficiencies caused by excessive use or degradation from chemical exposure.

Wearing the right safety gloves is instrumental in preventing different workplace hand injuries, including cuts, punctures, burns, or abrasion injuries. It also saves costs incurred by the company each time a hand injury occurs, such as medical expenses that average $6,000 and lost-time compensation expenses that average $7,500. Hand injuries send more than one million workers to the emergency room each year. Your employees cannot afford to go barehanded or be wearing the wrong gloves, not when the cost of one preventable incident far exceeds the cost of an entire hand protection program.

Machine Risk Assessment vs. Safeguarding Assessment? Start 2021 off on the right safety foot.

When it comes to accidents, manufacturing ranks second highest of all industries. That comes despite OSHA regulations and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. A key culprit is unguarded hazardous machinery.

Year after year, OSHA issues thousands of citations and levies millions of dollars in fines for machine safeguarding violations in an attempt to prevent injuries and save lives OSHA 1910.212(a)(1) is the most common section citation, whereby “one or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards” followed by OSHA 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) whereby “the point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury shall be guarded.

Why the disregard?

Why is this so? Often facility safety managers are lulled into a false sense of security because a serious accident has not yet occurred or because accidents are rare in their facility. Other managers might wrongly suppose that their newly purchased machinery arrives fully compliant, not realizing that OEMs are typically concerned with new machinery price competitiveness, not necessarily guarding compliance. Still other managers may wrongly assume that older machines are “grandfathered in” before OSHA was formed.

For whatever reason, approximately HALF of industrial machinery has not been properly safeguarded.

That is the bad news.

The good news is there is a way to determine compliance through an assessment of the machinery on the plant floor, as outlined by ANSI B11.0. There are two types of assessments that reign supreme: the Risk Assessment and the Safeguarding Assessment. This article will address both methods and how they help an organization better protect the people operating the machines and reduce the risk at the facility.

Risk assessments should be conducted annually, including whenever a new machine is installed or a major change to an existing machine or production line has taken place. Additionally, in an ideal world, a pre- and post-assessment would be done to verify that the hazards identified in the assessment were properly mitigated.

Risk assessment

What a risk assessment is comprised of is outlined in ANSI B11 Series Standards for Industrial Machinery, ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012 Safety Standards for Industrial Robots, and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 79-2015 Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery.

The overarching goal of a task-based risk assessment is to identify hazards associated with machinery or robots. This requires an on-site visit by a risk assessment professional who audits and assigns each machine a risk rating based on three considerations: Severity of Injury, Exposure Frequency, and Avoidance Likelihood, which produces a Risk Level. Today’s risk assessment specialists use software-based tools that can make the process quicker than working through a pen-and-paper risk assessment form.

In advance of the facility visit and based upon project scope, the risk assessment specialist will need to review a comprehensive machine list and potentially other documentation such as: corporate safety standards, lockout/tagout (LOTO) procedures, electrical and mechanical drawings, floor-plan layout and equipment manuals.

The scope of assessing a piece of machinery for risk begins with reviewing its operational states with functionality tests performed to help identify potential hazards during machine start-up, cycle, and stopping. The risk assessment specialist may perform a Stop-Time Measurement (STM) test to determine the machine’s reaction time after receiving a stop signal to ensure proper safety distance of safeguarding devices. The specialist will also establish if a passerby or other employees in the area could be hurt if an incident occurs, in addition to the operator.

Along with assessing the production risks of the machine, the risk assessment specialist must analyze the tasks performed by the machine operator as they relate to interacting with the machine, loading and unloading materials, planned and unplanned maintenance methods, frequency of tool changes, and general housekeeping.

During the risk assessment, the specialist will photograph machines and generate a final hazard report documenting their assessment findings and risk levels. The hazardous findings of each machine are broken down into the following ranked classifications:

Critical: There is an imminent life-threatening or dismemberment hazard and immediate action is needed to reduce risk and improve operator safety
Mandatory: There is an imminent hazard that creates potential for injury and action is required to reduce risk, improve operator safety and to comply with OSHA/ANSI standards
Compliant: There is not a recognized hazard that creates potential for injury and no action is required.

Safeguarding assessment

While a risk assessment helps to identify a problem, it does not provide specific safety solutions nor cost estimates. For that, a safeguarding assessment is needed.

During the safeguarding assessment, a specialist will visit the site and conduct an intensive audit of each machine and identify compliance in five guarding areas: safeguards, controls, disconnects, starters and covers. The safeguarding specialist may request copies of electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic schematics, operator manuals and ask for control panel access so that engineers can review the control circuit for electrical compatibility of any proposed safeguarding solutions and to verify reliability of the control circuit to determine the interfacing requirements of suggested equipment. Then the safeguarding specialist will focus on risk reduction using this basic methodology:

– Eliminate Access — A good safeguarding system eliminates the possibility of the operator or other workers placing parts of their bodies near hazardous moving parts.
Reduction in Exposure — A machine safeguard should not be able to be removed, bypassed or tampered with by the operator. To minimize risk exposure, all guards and devices must be securely mounted at the point-of-operation and durable enough to withstand industrial environments, vandalism and heavy usage.
– Create No New Hazards — A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates a hazard of its own such as a shear point, a jagged edge, or an unfinished surface which can cause a laceration. The edges of guards, for instance, should be rolled or bolted in such a way that they eliminate sharp edges.
– Create No Interference — Any safeguard which impedes a worker from performing a job quickly and comfortably might soon be overridden or disregarded. Proper safeguarding can actually enhance efficiency since it can relieve the worker’s apprehensions about injury.
– Allow Safe Lubrication — Locating oil reservoirs outside the guard, with a line leading to the lubrication point, will reduce the need for the worker to enter the hazardous area.
Administrative Controls — Without administrative oversight and supervisory control, a machine safeguarding program will fail. Training is key to establishing a safety culture. Operators need to trained to follow the Standard Operating Procedures provided by the machine manufacturer in order to reduce hazards and related risks.

Uncovering gaps in protection

Unlike a risk assessment, a safeguarding assessment recognizes both the problem and the solution. A final compliance report and safeguarding project proposal is issued to facility management which identifies deficiencies or gaps where each machine is not in compliance with current or specified regulations and standards. When not in compliance, the proposal offers standard and customized safeguarding solutions, along with associated costs and timelines to help bring machines into compliance and reduce risk. Each proposed solution is carefully weighed against factors such as risk-reduction benefit, productivity, technological feasibility, economic impact, and maintainability.

In this way, a machine safeguarding assessment follows the OSHA/ANSI approach to controlling machine hazards: eliminate the hazard by design; or control the hazard by guarding, posted warnings, personal protective equipment, and employee training.

Risk reduction strategies

When evaluating risk reduction solutions to address identified hazards, consider each machine and its unique risks. Three basic methods are available.
– Eliminating or reducing risks to a “tolerable” level by installing a new, inherently safe machine. Please note that what constitutes “tolerable” to one company is not necessarily tolerable to another.
– Installing the necessary safeguarding equipment on an existing machine to minimize risks that cannot be eliminated. Fixed enclosing guards, protective devices such as light curtains, palm buttons or presence sensing mats, and training on the safe working methods of the machine are all necessary to reduce injury risks.
– Changing the production process to eliminate the hazard. Perhaps the operator performs actions that increase his exposure to serious hazards? Or recent changes upstream have created a more dangerous environment? Even a small change in procedures can make for a safer, more efficient operation.

Conclusion

Both risk assessments and/or the safeguarding assessments are critical first steps in any machine or robot safeguarding project as outlined in ANSI B11 Series Standards for Metalworking, OSHA 1910.212 General Requirements, ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012 Safety Standards for Industrial Robots and NFPA 79. These standards pave the way for risk-reduction measures that are both effective and economical. Machine risk assessments provide a comprehensive hazard analysis with a risk ranking; machine safeguarding assessments identify safeguarding solutions and provide cost estimates for implementation. Which one is right for an organization depends upon the specific needs of the organization, the organization’s objectives, desired outputs and risk levels.

Related Blogs:

Machine Risk Assessment Process

Machine Safeguarding Assessment

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Remote Safeguarding Assessment

The good old days? Not for machine operators.

History of U.S. Machine Safeguarding

When manufacturing moved from small shops to factories during the Industrial Revolution, inexperienced, often very young workers were confronted with a confusing jumble of moving belts, pulleys and gears. While pre-industrial craftsmen faced risks from kilns and hand tools, industrialization introduced massive steam engines and fast-moving machines. Adults and children, some as young as four years old, operated unprotected machinery 12-16 hours a day under conditions unheard of today, with many losing their lives.

Safeguarding History

In America the use of labor saving machines was driven by a regulatory climate that discouraged employer’s interest in safety. As a result, manufacturers at the time developed machinery that was both highly productive and very dangerous. Overworked American factory workers in the 1900s faced life with missing limbs, damaged vision and hearing, lung infections, and severe burn injuries.

Child Worker Injury

Workers who were injured might sue employers for damages, yet winning proved difficult. If employers could show that the worker had assumed the risk, acted carelessly or had been injured by the actions of a fellow employee, courts would usually deny liability. Only about half of all workers fatally injured recovered anything and their average compensation amounted to only half a year’s pay. Because employee accidents were so cheap, industrial machinery was developed with little reference to safeguarding.

Not unexpectedly, reports from state labor bureaus were full of tragedies that struck the unlucky. These reports spurred the budding labor movement to call for factory safety. In 1877, Massachusetts passed the Nation’s first factory inspection law. It required guarding of belts, shafts and gears, protection on elevators, and adequate fire exits. Its passage prompted a flurry of state factory acts. By 1890, nine states provided for factory inspectors, 13 required machine safeguarding, and 21 made limited provision for health hazards.

Safeguarding HistoryOn the national level, Congress passed a federal employers’ liability law in 1908 that made it more expensive for companies to have a machine accident on their books. Thanks to the new law, worker injuries that once cost companies $200 to resolve now cost almost $2,000. In 1910, the state of New York created a workmen’s compensation law that forced companies to automatically compensate for workplace injuries, eliminating the need for families to take corporations to court. By 1921, 43 more states had followed New York’s lead and established their own compensation laws. Compensation laws and other liability costs suddenly made workplace injuries an expensive proposition for many employers.

What followed was a slow but steady increase in machine safeguarding. Manufacturing companies began to work to create safer production equipment, and managers began getting tasked with identifying machine dangers.

In 1913, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics documented approximately 23,000 industrial deaths among a workforce of 38 million — a rate of about 61 deaths per 100,000 workers. Although the reporting system has changed over the years, the figure dropped to 37 deaths per 100,000 workers by 1933 and 3.5 per 100,000 full-time-equivalent workers in 2010. A major contributor to the trend in fewer deaths was machine safeguarding.

Safeguarding HistoryAfter WWII accidents declined as powerful labor unions played an increasingly important role in worker safety. Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) became a requirement with gloves, masks and aprons given to workers. Posters were hung throughout the plant floor reminding workers of their responsibility to think and act in a safe manner. Basic guards and safety mats became common features around industrial machinery. Also, the American Standards Association published its “Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus” in the 1940s. Very similar to OSHA 1910.218 it was written to serve as a guide for machine manufacturers in guarding systems. The National Safety Council found that the injury frequency rate dropped from 15 injuries per 100 full-time workers in 1941 to 9 in 1950. By 1956, it reached a decade low of 6 per 100 workers. As impressive as those numbers were, the on-the-job death toll in the 1950s remained a stubborn 13,000-16,000 workers annually.

Nixon Signs OSH ACTIn the 1960s economic expansion again led to rising injury rates with 14,000 workers dying each year. An additional 2.2 million workers were injured on the job. Resulting political pressures led Congress to establish the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1970. On December 29, 1970, President Richard Nixon signed into law the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act), which gave the Federal Government the authority to set and enforce safety and health standards for most of the country’s workers. This act was the result of a hard fought legislative battle that began in 1968 when President Lyndon Johnson unsuccessfully sought a similar measure.

In the House, Representative William A. Steiger worked for passage of his bill by saying: “In the last 25 years, more than 400,000 Americans were killed by work-related accidents and disease, and close to 50 million more suffered disabling injuries on the job. Not only has this resulted in incalculable pain and suffering for workers and their families, but such injuries have cost billions of dollars in lost wages and production.”

Machine Safeguarding AssessmentsWhen the agency opened for business in April 1971, OSHA covered 56 million workers at 3.5 million workplaces. Today, 105 million private-sector workers and employers at 6.9 million sites look to OSHA for guidance on workplace safety and health issues.

Safeguarding technology and requirements have come a long way since the industrial revolution. Advanced light curtains, interlocked guards, laser-guided systems and presence sensors are now commonplace. Despite this progress, the lack of machine guarding has been named to OSHA’S Top 10 Most Cited Violations List virtually every year since the list began. In 2018 OSHA handed out nearly 2,000 violations to companies for failing to have machines and equipment adequately guarded, underscoring how much work there is left to do.

In many respects, we take today’s focus on machine safety for granted. However, by reviewing history we can see how it has benefited society by radically reducing accidents and deaths.

Safeguarding History

Ten Most Reported Worker’s Compensation Injuries

Last year in America 2.9 million employees (U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics) suffered a workplace injury from which they never recover, at a cost to business of nearly $60 billion (Liberty Mutual Insurance). These statistics are staggering. To help gain a better perspective on the realities of workplace danger, we have compiled a list of the ten most reported worker’s compensation injuries, as reported by a leading insurance company.

By raising awareness of these dangers, we hope we can help you identify hazards in your workplace and take measures to control the risks preferably by eliminating them – but if that is not possible, by reducing them as far as possible.

1. Overexertion– These are injuries due to excessive physical effort such as lifting, pulling, pushing, turning, wielding, holding, carrying or throwing. The Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index, which is compiled using Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data, workers’ compensation claims reported to the National Academy of Social Insurance and compensation benefits paid by Liberty Mutual, indicates that overexertion accounts for more than 25 percent of direct workers’ compensation costs paid out annually.

2. Slips – Slipping accidents are the second leading cause of workers’ compensation claims and the top cause of workplace injuries for workers 55 and older, as reported by the National Flooring Safety Institute. In a hard fall, a worker may sustain injuries to the knee or ankle, wrist or elbow, back or shoulder, hip or head. Employers need safety guidelines to ensure spills are promptly cleaned and no debris is present which can be dangerous.

3. Falling – In 2013, 595 workers died in elevated falls, and 47,120 were injured badly enough to require days off of work. A worker doesn’t have to fall from a high level to suffer fatal injuries. While half of all fatal falls in 2016 occurred from 20 feet or lower, 11% were from less than 6 feet. Not surprisingly, construction workers are most at risk for fatal falls from height – more than seven times the rate of other industries. These types of accidents can be reduced by the use of proper personal protection gear, training and employee diligence.

4. Bodily Reaction– Coming in at number four are reaction injuries caused by slipping and tripping without falling, often leading to muscle injuries, body trauma, and a variety of other medical issues. Although these injuries may sound non-serious, insurance companies paid out $3.89 billion in workers’ compensation in 2016 for bodily reaction incidences (Liberty Mutual Insurance).

5. Falling Object Injuries – There are more than 50,000 “struck by falling object” injuries every year in the United States, says the Bureau of Labor Statistics. That’s one injury caused by a dropped object every 10 minutes. How serious is the danger? Consider this: an eight-pound wrench dropped 200 feet would hit with a force of 2,833 pounds per square inch – the equivalent of a small car hitting a one-square-inch area. Proper personal protection gear usage, such as a hard hat, can be instrumental in keeping the employee safe.

6. Distracted Walking Injuries – They may seem funny in slapstick comedies, but distracted walking injuries in the workplace were recently labeled a “significant safety threat” by the National Safety Council. These injuries occur when a person accidentally runs into walls, doors, cabinets, glass windows, tables, chairs or other people. Head, knee, neck, and foot injuries are common results. As with distracted driving accidents, it is difficult to track the number of occupational injuries caused by distracted walking, since workers might be reluctant to admit they were looking down at their cell phones when they were injured.

7. Vehicle Accidents – Accidents are common in workplace environments using cranes, trailers and trucks. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics more than 1,700 deaths a year result from occupational transportation incidents. Employee Safe Driver training courses are likely to reduce vehicle accidents that may injure employees. Managers are required to conduct routine vehicle maintenance to ensure vehicles are operating safely and properly.

8. Machinery Accidents – Machines used in the workplace are often operated without safety guards and devices, exposing their operators and others to serious injury. Common injuries involve clothing or hair becoming caught in moving parts. Many of the amputations that occur on machinery can be prevented by updating machines with appropriate safeguarding. Electrical updates for magnetic motor-starters, main power disconnects, and emergency-stops, also help to prevent injury. OSHA regulations and ANSI safety standards spell out safety modifications that can prevent needless accidents. Learn more about how Rockford Systems, a leader in machine safeguarding, will help you create a safer workplace with their extensive line of innovative safeguarding solutions.

9. Repetitive Motion Injuries – Thousands of employees suffer from injuries that occur gradually and make it difficult to do daily tasks, such as typing, twisting wires, using hand tools, or bending over to lift objects. These are called repetitive motion injuries and strain muscles and tendons. Over time it will lead to back pain, lumbar injuries, tendonitis, bursitis, vision problems, or carpal tunnel syndrome. Repetitive motion injuries may be temporary or permanent. Employee training and the use of proper ergonomic tools can help keep these incidents low.

10. Workplace Violence – According to OSHA, workplace violence is any act or threat of physical violence, harassment, intimidation, or other threatening disruptive behavior that occurs at the work site. It ranges from threats and verbal abuse to physical assaults and even homicide. Nearly 2 million American workers report having been victims of workplace violence each year. Unfortunately, many more cases go unreported. Workplace violence employee training and employee diligence in watching out for suspicious activities can help keep these incidents at bay. One of the best protections employers can offer their workers is to establish a zero-tolerance policy toward workplace violence.

Workplace injuries can leave the lives of employees and their families shattered. Employers have legal obligations to ensure a safe workplace for their employees – and also for anyone else who may visit the workplace such as customers, contractors and members of the public.

Work Safety Topics

Did you know that June is National Safety Month? Rockford Systems has partnered with the National Safety Council to promote safety to our valued customers!

Nearly 13,000 American workers are injured each day, and each injury is preventable. Here are some of the safety topics NSC is focusing on.

Fatigue
Adults need seven to nine hours of sleep each day to reach peak performance, but nearly one-third report averaging less than six hours. The effects of fatigue are far-reaching and can have an adverse impact in all areas of our lives.
· Safety performance decreases as employees become tired
· You are three times more likely to be in a car crash if you are fatigued
· Chronic sleep-deprivation causes depression, obesity, cardiovascular disease and other illnesses

Drugs at Work
Drug use at work is a safety topic that is gaining attention. Lost time, job turnover, re-training and healthcare costs are three of the primary implications of drug use regularly confronted by employers. The typical worker with a substance use disorder misses about two work weeks (10.5 days) for illness, injury or reasons other than vacations and holidays.
· Workers with substance use disorders miss 50% more days than their peers, averaging 14.8 days a year
· Workers with pain medication use disorders miss nearly three times as many days – 29 days
· Workers in recovery who report receiving substance use treatment miss the fewest days of any group – 9.5

Driving
Many employers have adopted safe driving policies that include bans on cell phone while driving and on the job. NSC has created a Safe Driving Kit with materials to build leadership support for a cell phone policy and tools to communicate with employees.

Workplace Violence
Every year, 2 million American workers report having been victims of workplace violence. This violence fits into four categories: criminal intent, customer/client, worker-on-worker and personal relationship (most involving women).
The deadliest situations involve an active shooter.

Every organization needs to address workplace violence through policy, training and the development of emergency action plans. While there is no way to predict an attack, you can be aware of warning signals that might signal future violence.

Slips, Trips and Falls
You might be surprised to learn that falls account for the third-highest total unintentional deaths every year in the United States. Fatalities as a result of falls are surpassed only by poisoning (including deaths from drugs and medicines) and motor vehicle crashes.

Fall safety should be a top priority. Construction workers are at the most risk for fatal falls from height, but falls can happen anywhere, and it is important to recognize potential hazards, both on the job and off. Plan ahead and use the right equipment.

Ergonomics and Overexertion
Overexertion causes 35% of all work-related injuries and is the No. 1 reason for lost work days. Regular exercise, stretching and strength training can prevent injury. Likewise, ergonomic assessments can ward off ergonomics injuries, often caused by excessive lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, reaching or stretching.

Struck by Objects
While employers are responsible for providing a safe work environment, employees can take steps to protect themselves at work. Paying attention is vitally important for those operating machinery as well as those working around power tools and motor vehicles.

Source: National Safety Council